All Medical Migraine Treatment Research

The Reed Procedure®: A Potentially Permanent Surgical Migraine Treatment

Medical migraine treatment research over the past 2 decades has extensively documented the therapeutic efficacy of implanted neurostimulation for chronic head pain. The first report on the subject was Dr. Reed’s paper published in 1999 on Occipital Nerve Stimulation.

Following that 1999 report, about 139 papers have been published by 370 contributing researchers, representing 123 prominent institutions across the United States and Europe. To the best of our knowledge, this list contains all full peer-reviewed articles and additional abstracts that have been published on the subject. We endeavor to keep this a complete reference for migraine treatment research. Please contact us to let us know if you are aware of any articles that may be missing.

Some suggested search terms while reviewing the migraine treatment research papers include, but are not limited to: neurostimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, neuromodulation, combined supraorbital and occipital nerve stimulation, treatment of chronic cluster headache, treatment of occipital neuralgia, headache disorders, migraine treatment research, chronic migraines, trigeminal nerve stimulator placement, refractory occipital pain, peripheral nerve field stimulation.

The citations below are arranged in alphabetical order and include 111+ peer-reviewed full clinical reports and 28 published abstracts. Clicking on any migraine treatment research paper will link to a downloadable PDF file.

Abhinav K, Park ND, Prakash SK, Love-Jones S, Patel NK. Novel Use of Narrow Paddle Electrodes for Occipital Nerve Stimulation—Technical Note. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2013;16:607-609.
Amin S, Buvanendran A, Park KS, Kroin JS, Moric M. Peripheral nerve stimulator for the treatment of supraorbital neuralgia: a retrospective case series. Cephalalgia 2008;28:355-359.
Arcioni R, Martelletti P. Refractory chronic migraine: Therapy with combined peripheral neurostimulation. In: Siva A, Lampl C, eds. Case-Based Diagnosis and Management of Headache Disorders. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015: 75-80.
Asensio‐Samper JM, Villanueva VL, Pérez AV, et al. Peripheral neurostimulation in supraorbital neuralgia refractory to conventional therapy. Pain Practice 2008;8:120-124.
Bermejo PE, del Pozo C, Parodi E, Ahijado J, Rey P. EHMTI-0224. Occipital nerve stimulation for drug-resistant chronic migraine: increasing experience. The Journal of Headache and Pain 2014;15:1-1.
Brewer AC, Trentman TL, Ivancic MG, et al. Long-term outcome in occipital nerve stimulation patients with medically intractable primary headache disorders. Neuromodulation 2012;16:557-564.
Bulger R, Conidi F, Reed KL. Combined supraorbital (SONS) and occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) for intractable post-herpetic neuralgia (P7.317). American Academy of Neurology 2014 Annual Meeting; 2014; Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Neurology: P7.317.
Carayannopoulos AG. Teaching case: occipital neuralgia in a young patient. Headache 2007;47:1367-1370.
Clarke C, Azari P, Huh B. Damaged insulation mimicked symptoms of occipital stimulator lead migration. Neuromodulation 2011;14:539-540; discussion 541.
Datta S, Reed KL, Will KR. Combined supraorbital (SONS) and occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) in failed surgical treatment of migraine: case report and review of the literature [abstract]. American Society of Intervention Pain Physicians 2012 Annual Meeting; 2012; Washington DC: Pain Physician: E541-572.
de Quintana-Schmidt C, Casajuana-Garreta E, Molet-Teixido J, et al. [Stimulation of the occipital nerve in the treatment of drug-resistant cluster headache]. Rev Neurol 2010;51:19-26.
Dodick D, Silberstein SD, Slavin KV, Reed KL, Huh B, Goldstein J. Evidence for long-term efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves in the management of chronic migraine [abstract]. Cephalalgia 2013;33:58.
Dodick DW. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic cluster headache. Advanced Studies in Medicine 2003;3:S569-S571.
Dodick DW, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS, Eric E. Occipital nerve stimulation for inttractable chronic primary headache disorders (p abs). Cephalalgia 2003;23:701.
Elahi F, Reddy C, Bellinger A, Manolitsis N. Neuromodulation of the great auricular aerve: a case report. Neuromodulation 2014;17:784-787.
Eldrige JS, Obray JB, Pingree MJ, Hoelzer BC. Occipital neuromodulation: ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve stimulator implantation. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain 2010;10:580-585.
Ellis J, Gill B, Pisapia D, Winfree C. Superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm following trigeminal nerve stimulator placement. Neuromodulation 2014;17:788-790.
Ellis J, Mejia Munne J, Winfree C. Trigeminal branch stimulation for the treatment of intractable craniofacial pain. J Neurosurg 2015;123:283-288.
Falowski S, Wang D, Sabesan A, Sharan A. Occipital nerve stimulator systems: review of complications and surgical techniques. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2010;13:121-125.
Feletti A, Santi GZ, Sammartino F, Bevilacqua M, Cisotto P, Longatti P. Peripheral trigeminal nerve field stimulation: report of 6 cases. Neurosurg Focus 2013;35:E10.
Fontaine D, Sol JC, Raoul S, et al. Treatment of refractory chronic cluster headache by chronic occipital nerve stimulation. Cephalalgia 2011;31:1101-1105.
Franzini A, Messina G, Leone M, Broggi G. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS). Surgical technique and prevention of late electrode migration. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2009;151:861-865; discussion 865.
Gaul C, Muller OM, Gasser T, Diener H-C, Katsarava Z. Bilateral occipital nerve stimulation for chronic cluster headache (p abs). Cephalalgia 2009;29:42.
Ghaemi K, Capelle HH, Kinfe TM, Krauss JK. Occipital nerve stimulation for refractory occipital pain after occipitocervical fusion: expanding indications. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2008;86:391-393.
Hayek SM, Jasper JF, Deer T, Narouze S. Occipital neurostimulation-induced muscle spasms: implications for lead placement. Pain Physician 2009;12:867-876.
Jakobs M, Unterberg A, Treede R-D, Schuh-Hofer S, Ahmadi R. Subcutaneous trigeminal nerve field stimulation for refractory trigeminal pain: a cohort analysis. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2016:1-8.
Kapural L, Mekhail N, Hayek SM, Stanton-Hicks M, Malak O. Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: a pilot study. Anesth Analg 2005;101:171-174, table of contents.
Kiss ZH, Becker WJ. Occipital stimulation for chronic migraine: Patient selection and complications. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2012;39:807-812.
Kovacs S, Peeters R, De Ridder D, Plazier M, Menovsky T, Sunaert S. Central effects of occipital nerve electrical stimulation studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuromodulation 2011;14:46-55; discussion 56-47.
Lainez MJ, Piera A, Salvador A, Roldan P, Gonzales-Darder J. Efficacy and safety of occipital nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic cluster headache (abs). Headache 2008;48:S15.
Leone M, Proietti Cecchini A, Messina G, Franzini A. Long-term occipital nerve stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2016.
Lipton RB, Goadsby PJ, Cady RK, et al. PRISM study: Occipital nerve stimulation for treatment-refractory migraine (p abs). Cephalalgia 2009;29:30.
Magis D, Allena M, Bolla M, De Pasqua V, Remacle JM, Schoenen J. Occipital nerve stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache: a prospective pilot study. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:314-321.
Magis D, Gerardy PY, Remacle JM, Schoenen J. Sustained effectiveness of occipital nerve stimulation in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache. Headache 2011;51:1191-1201.
Magown P, Garcia R, Beauprie I, Mendez IM. Occipital nerve stimulation for intractable occipital neuralgia: An open surgical technique. Clin Neurosurg 2009;56:119-124.
Mammis A, Gudesblatt M, Mogilner AY. Peripheral neurostimulation for the treatment of refractory cluster headache, long-term follow-up: case report. Neuromodulation 2011;14:432-435; discussion 435.
Matharu MS, Bartsch T, Ward N, Frackowial RS, Weiner RL, Goadsby PJ. Central neuromodulation in chronic migraine patients with suboccipital stimulators: a PET study. Brain 2004;127:220-230.
Melvin EA, Jordan ER, Weiner RL, Primm D. Using peripheral nerve stimulation to reduce the pain of c2-mediated headaches: a preliminary report. Pain Physician 2007;10:453-460.
Miller S, Watkins L, Matharu M. Long-term outcomes of occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine: a cohort of 53 patients. The Journal of Headache and Pain 2016;17:1-15.
Mueller OM, Gaul C, Katsarava Z, Diener HC, Sure U, Gasser T. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache – lessons learned from 18 months experience. Cent Eur Neurosurg 2011;72:84-89.
Mueller OM, Gaul C, Katsarava Z, Sure U, Diener HC, Gasser T. [Bilateral occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache: case series and initiation of a prospective study]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2010;78:709-714.
Notaro P, Buratti E, Meroni A, Montagna MC, Rubino FG, Voltolini A. The effects of peripheral occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic migraine: a single center experience. Pain physician 2014;17:E369-E374.
Paemeliere K, Van Buyten JP, Van Buynder M, et al. Phenotype of patients responsive to occipital nerve stimulation for refractory head pain. Cephalalgia 2010;30:662-673.
Picaza JA, Cannon BW, Hunter SE, Boyd AS, Guma J, Maurer D. Pain suppression by peripheral nerve stimulation: part II. observations with implanted devices. Surg Neurol 1975;4:115-126.
Picaza JA, Hunter SE, Cannon BW. Pain suppression by peripheral nerve stimulation. Appl Neurophysiol 1977;40:223-234.
Pingree MJ, Eldrige JS. Occipital Neuromodulation: A Surgical Technique with Reduced Complications. Pain Physician 2016;19:E1005-E1012.
Ramineni T, Prusik J, De La Cruz P, et al. The Impact of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation on Disability and Depression. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2015:n/a-n/a.
Reed KL, Linder S, Will KR, Bulger R. Combined occipital and supraoribital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headaches in adolescents (Ages 14-19); a retrospective analysis of 23 consecutive patients [abstract]. 2013 Congress of the International Headache Society. Boston, MA: Cephalalgia, 2013: 198-199.
Reed KL, Will KR, Bulger R, Dattta S, Rupert M, Linder S. Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headachess: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 171 consecutive patients [abstract]. 2013 Contgress of the International Headache Society. Boston, MA: Cephalalgia, 2013: 197-198.
Reed KL, Will KR, Chapman J, Richter E. Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headaches: an extended case series [abst]. 15th Congress of the International Headache Society. Berlin, Germany: Cephalalgia, 2011: 98-99.
Reverberi C, Bonezzi C, Demartini L. Peripheral Subcutaneous Neurostimulation in the Management of Neuropathic Pain: Five Case Reports. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2009;12:146-155.
Rodrigo-Royo D, Azcona J, Quero J, Lorente M, Acin P, Azcona J. Peripheral neurostimulation in the management of cervicogenic headache: four case reports. Neuromodulation 2005;8:241-248.
Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Hentz J, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic headache–long-term safety and efficacy. Cephalalgia 2007;27:153-157.
Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS. Response to occipital nerve block is not useful in predicting efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation. Cephalalgia 2007;27:271-274.
Seixas T, Liça L, Ribeiro B, Batista A, Cortez J, Silva DJ. Chronic cluster headache treated with occipital and supraciliary nerve stimulation‐a new approach: 14AP2‐10. European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA) 2013;30:210-210.
Serra G, Marchioretto F. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine: a randomized trial. Pain Physician 2012;15:245-253.
Shaladi A, Crestani F, Saltari R, Piva B. [Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation of peripheral nerve for the intractable occipital neuralgia]. Recenti Prog Med 2008;99:295-301.
Shin JH, Kim YC, Jang IK, Kim JH, Park SY, Lee SC. Occipital nerve stimulation in a patient with an intractable chronic headache -A case report. Korean J Anesthesiol 2011;60:298-301.
Silberstein SD, Dodick D, Saper JR, et al. The safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation for the management of chronic migraine. North American Neurostimulation Society Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, Nevada2011.
Silberstein SD, Dodick D, Saper JR, et al. The safety and efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for the management of chronic migraine. Cephalalgia 2011;31:117.
Silberstein SD, Dodick D, Saper JR, et al. Efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for the management of intractable, chronic migraine: results from a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. 2012 American Headache Society 54th Annual Scientific Meeting. Los Angeles, Ca2012: 866.
Simopoulos T, Bajwa Z, Lantz G, Lee S, Burstein R. Implanted auriculotemporal nerve stimulator for the treatment of refractory chronic migraine. Headache 2010;50:1064-1069.
Slavin KV, Nersesyan H, Wess C. Peripheral neurostimulation for treatment of intractable occipital neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2006;58:112-119; discussion 112-119.
Slavin KV, Vannemreddy PS. Repositioning of supraorbital nerve stimulation electrode using retrograde needle insertion: a technical note. Neuromodulation 2011;14:160-163; discussion 163-164.
Son BC, Yang SH, Hong JT, Lee SW. Occipital nerve Stimulation for medically refractory hypnic headache. Neuromodulation 2012.
Stidd DA, Wuollet A, Bowden K, et al. Peripheral nerve stimulation for trigeminal neuropathic pain. Pain Physician 2012;15:27-33.
Trentman T, Maloney J, Wie C, Rebecca AM, Rosenfeld DM. Use of botulinum toxin injections to treat peripheral stimulator induced facial muscle twitching: a case report. SpringerPlus 2015;4:216.
Trentman TL, Dodick DW, Zimmerman RS, Birch BD. Percutaneous occipital stimulator tip erosion: report of 2 cases. Pain Physician 2008;11:253-256.
Trentman TL, Mueller JT, Shah DM, Zimmerman RS, Noble BM. Occipital nerve stimulator lead pathway length changes with volunteer movement: an in vitro study. Pain Practice 2010;10:42-48.
Trentman TL, Rosenfeld DM, Vargas BB, Schwedt TJ, Zimmerman RS, Dodick DW. Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion microstimulator: implantation technique and stimulation parameters. Clinical trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician 2009;12:621-628.
Trentman TL, Slavin KV, Freeman JA, Zimmerman RS. Occipital nerve stimulator placement via a retromastoid to infraclavicular approach: a technical report. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2010;88:121-125.
Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS, Dodick DW, Dormer CL, Vargas BB. Occipital nerve stimulator placement under general anesthesia: initial experience with 5 cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2010;22:158-162.
Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS, Seth N, Hentz JG, Dodick DW. Stimulation ranges, usage ranges, and paresthesia mapping during occipital nerve stimulation. Neuromodulation 2008;11:56-61.
Upadhyay SP, Rana SP, Mishra S, Bhatnagar S. Successful treatment of an intractable postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) using peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS). Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2010;27:59-62.
Vadivelu S, Bolognese P, Milhorat TH, Mogilner AY. Occipital nerve stimulation for refractory headache in the Chiari malformation population. Neurosurgery 2012;70:1430-1437.
Vargas BB, Dodick D, Trentman TL, Radam TE, Zimmerman RS, Noble BN. Occipital nerve stimulation via the bion device for the treatment of medically refractory chronic cluster headache. Headache 2008;48:S52.
Verrills P, Rose R, Mitchell B, Vivian D, Barnard A. Peripheral nerve field stimulation for chronic headache: 60 cases and long-term follow-up. Neuromodulation 2014;17:54-59.
Vesper J, Bara G, Kinfe T, Schu S. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) for the treatment of chronic headache syndromes. J Headache Pain 2013;14:P193.
Waisbrod G, Panhans C, Hansen D, Gerbershagen HU. Direct nerve stimulation for painful peripiheral neuropathies. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1985;67-B:470-472.
Weiner RL, Alo KM, Feller C, et al. Nerve stimulation in the treatment of occipital neuralgia (p abs). International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society Conference; 1998; Lucerne, Switzerland: Liste-88.
Weiner RL, Alo KM, Reed KL, Fuller ML. Subcutaneous neurostimulation for intractable C-2–mediated headaches. Annual AANS Meeting; 2001; Toronto, Canada: J Neurosurg: 938A.
Weiner RL, Reed KL. Peripheral neurostimulation for control of intractable occipital neuralgia. Neuromodulation 1999;2:217-221.
Weiner RL, Reed KL, Alo K, Fuller ML. Peripheral neurostimulation to control intractable occipital neuralgia (abstract). Neurosurgery 1999;45:696.
Zach KJ, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS, Dodick D. Refractory headaches treated with bilateral occipital and temporal region stimulation. Medical Devices: Evidence and Research 2014;7:55-59.
Zhou L, Ashkenazi A, Smith JW, Jen N, Deer TR, Zhou C. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Headache and Complication Prevention. Anesth Pain Med;inpress:e35983.


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