All Medical Migraine Treatment Research
The Reed Procedure ® : A Permanent Surgical Migraine Treatment
Medical migraine treatment research over the past 17 years has extensively documented the therapeutic efficacy of implanted neurostimulation for chronic head pain. The first report on the subject was Dr. Reed’s paper published in 1999 on Occipital Nerve Stimulation.
Following that 1999 report, about 139 papers have been published by 370 contributing researchers, representing 123 prominent institutions across the United States and Europe. To the best of our knowledge, this list contains all full peer-reviewed articles and additional abstracts that have been published on the subject. We endeavor to keep this a complete reference for migraine treatment research. Please contact us to let us know if you are aware of any articles that may be missing.
Some suggested search terms while reviewing the migraine treatment research papers include, but are not limited to: neurostimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, neuromodulation, combined supraorbital and occipital nerve stimulation, treatment of chronic cluster headache, treatment of occipital neuralgia, headache disorders, migraine treatment research, chronic migraines, trigeminal nerve stimulator placement, refractory occipital pain, peripheral nerve field stimulation.
The citations below are arranged in alphabetical order and include 111+ peer-reviewed full clinical reports and 28 published abstracts. Clicking on any migraine treatment research paper will link to a downloadable PDF file.
Abhinav K, Park ND, Prakash SK, Love-Jones S, Patel NK. Novel Use of Narrow Paddle Electrodes for Occipital Nerve Stimulation—Technical Note. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2013;16:607-609.
Arcioni R, Martelletti P. Refractory chronic migraine: Therapy with combined peripheral neurostimulation. In: Siva A, Lampl C, eds. Case-Based Diagnosis and Management of Headache Disorders. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015: 75-80.
Bulger R, Conidi F, Reed KL. Combined supraorbital (SONS) and occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) for intractable post-herpetic neuralgia (P7.317). American Academy of Neurology 2014 Annual Meeting; 2014; Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Neurology: P7.317.
Cesaroni A, Chiara M, Nardi PV. Treatment of greater occipital neuralgia (p abs). 10th Annual International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) Conference; 2005; Montreal, Canada: IFESS.
Clark SW, Wu C, Boorman DW, et al. Long‐Term Pain Reduction Does Not Imply Improved Functional Outcome in Patients Treated With Combined Supraorbital and Occipital Nerve Stimulation for Chronic Migraine. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2016.
Datta S, Reed KL, Will KR. Combined supraorbital (SONS) and occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) in failed surgical treatment of migraine: case report and review of the literature [abstract]. American Society of Intervention Pain Physicians 2012 Annual Meeting; 2012; Washington DC: Pain Physician: E541-572.
Dodick D, Silberstein SD, Slavin KV, Reed KL, Huh B, Goldstein J. Evidence for long-term efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves in the management of chronic migraine [abstract]. Cephalalgia 2013;33:58.
Dodick DW, Silberstein SD, Reed KL, et al. Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: Long-term results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia 2014.
Eldrige JS, Obray JB, Pingree MJ, Hoelzer BC. Occipital neuromodulation: ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve stimulator implantation. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain 2010;10:580-585.
Fontaine D, Blond S, Lucas C, et al. Occipital nerve stimulation improves the quality of life in medically-intractable chronic cluster headache: Results of an observational prospective study. Cephalalgia 2016.
Kapural L, Mekhail N, Hayek SM, Stanton-Hicks M, Malak O. Occipital nerve electrical stimulation via the midline approach and subcutaneous surgical leads for treatment of severe occipital neuralgia: a pilot study. Anesth Analg 2005;101:171-174, table of contents.
Kinfe T, Pintea B, Roeske S, Güresir Á, Güresir E, Vatter H. Percutaneous nerve field stimulation (PENS) of the occipital region as a possible predictor for occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) responsiveness in refractory headache disorders? A feasibility study. Cephalalgia 2015.
Kovacs S, Peeters R, De Ridder D, Plazier M, Menovsky T, Sunaert S. Central effects of occipital nerve electrical stimulation studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuromodulation 2011;14:46-55; discussion 56-47.
Lenchig S, Cohen J, Patin D. A minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathic pain with peripheral nerve stimulation. Pain physician 2012;15:E725-E732.
Li D, Xiao L. Combining botulinum toxin (a) injection with peripheral nerve stimulation in a patient for intractable ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2015.
Magis D, Gérard P, Schoenen J. Invasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method. The Journal of Headache and Pain 2016;17:1-5.
Mekhail NA, Estemalik E, Azer G, Davis K, Tepper SJ. Safety and Efficacy of Occipital Nerves Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Migraines: Randomized, Double‐blind, Controlled Single‐center Experience. Pain Practice 2016.
Mueller OM, Gaul C, Katsarava Z, Diener HC, Sure U, Gasser T. Occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache – lessons learned from 18 months experience. Cent Eur Neurosurg 2011;72:84-89.
Mueller OM, Gaul C, Katsarava Z, Sure U, Diener HC, Gasser T. [Bilateral occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache: case series and initiation of a prospective study]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2010;78:709-714.
Notaro P, Buratti E, Meroni A, Montagna MC, Rubino FG, Voltolini A. The effects of peripheral occipital nerve stimulation for the treatment of patients suffering from chronic migraine: a single center experience. Pain physician 2014;17:E369-E374.
Oh MY, Ortega J, Bellotte JB, Whiting DM, Aló K. Peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of occipital neuralgia and transformed migraine using a c1-2-3 subcutaneous paddle style electrode: a technical report. Neuromodulation 2004;7:103-112.
Palmisani S, Al-Kaisy A, Arcioni R, et al. A six year retrospective review of occipital nerve stimulation practice – controversies and challenges of an emerging technique for treating refractory headache syndromes. J Headache and Pain 2013;14:1-10.
Reed KL, Linder S, Will KR, Bulger R. Combined occipital and supraoribital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headaches in adolescents (Ages 14-19); a retrospective analysis of 23 consecutive patients [abstract]. 2013 Congress of the International Headache Society. Boston, MA: Cephalalgia, 2013: 198-199.
Reed KL, Will KR, Bulger R, Dattta S, Rupert M, Linder S. Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headachess: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 171 consecutive patients [abstract]. 2013 Contgress of the International Headache Society. Boston, MA: Cephalalgia, 2013: 197-198.
Reed KL, Will KR, Chapman J, Richter E. Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for chronic migraine headaches: an extended case series [abst]. 15th Congress of the International Headache Society. Berlin, Germany: Cephalalgia, 2011: 98-99.
Reverberi C, Bonezzi C, Demartini L. Peripheral Subcutaneous Neurostimulation in the Management of Neuropathic Pain: Five Case Reports. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface 2009;12:146-155.
Schwedt TJ, Dodick DW, Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic cluster headache and hemicrania continua: pain relief and persistence of autonomic features. Cephalalgia 2006;26:1025-1027.
Seixas T, Liça L, Ribeiro B, Batista A, Cortez J, Silva DJ. Chronic cluster headache treated with occipital and supraciliary nerve stimulation‐a new approach: 14AP2‐10. European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA) 2013;30:210-210.
Sharan A, Narouze S, Trentman TL, et al. Peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of headache pain and disability associated with chronic migraine: technical considerations from a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. North American Neurostimulation Society Annual Meeting; 2011; Las Vegas, Nevada.
Shaw AB, Sharma M, Shaikhouni A, et al. Neuromodulation as a last resort option in the treatment of chronic daily headaches in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol India 2015;63:707.
Silberstein SD, Dodick D, Saper JR, et al. The safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation for the management of chronic migraine. North American Neurostimulation Society Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, Nevada2011.
Silberstein SD, Dodick D, Saper JR, et al. Efficacy of occipital nerve stimulation for the management of intractable, chronic migraine: results from a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. 2012 American Headache Society 54th Annual Scientific Meeting. Los Angeles, Ca2012: 866.
Silberstein SD, Dodick DW, Saper J, et al. Safety and efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves for the management of chronic migraine: results from a randomized, multicenter, double-blinded, controlled study. Cephalalgia 2012;32:1165-1179.
Skaribas I, Calvillo O, Delikanaki-Skaribas E. Occipital peripheral nerve stimulation in the management of chronic intractable occipital neuralgia in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2011;5:174.
Slavin KV, Colpan ME, Munawar N, Wess C, Nersesyan H. Trigeminal and occipital peripheral nerve stimulation for craniofacial pain: a single-institution experience and review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus 2006;21:E5.
Strand NH, Trentman TL, Vargas BB, Dodick DW. Occipital nerve stimulation with the Bion(R) microstimulator for the treatment of medically refractory chronic cluster headache. Pain Physician 2011;14:435-440.
Trentman TL, Rosenfeld DM, Vargas BB, Schwedt TJ, Zimmerman RS, Dodick DW. Greater occipital nerve stimulation via the Bion microstimulator: implantation technique and stimulation parameters. Clinical trial: NCT00205894. Pain Physician 2009;12:621-628.
Trentman TL, Zimmerman RS, Dodick DW, Dormer CL, Vargas BB. Occipital nerve stimulator placement under general anesthesia: initial experience with 5 cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2010;22:158-162.
Vaisman J, Markley H, Ordia J, Deer T. The treatment of medically intractable trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia with supraorbital/supratrochlear stimulation: a retrospective case series. Neuromodulation 2012;15:374-380.
Vargas BB, Dodick D, Trentman TL, Radam TE, Zimmerman RS, Noble BN. Occipital nerve stimulation via the bion device for the treatment of medically refractory chronic cluster headache. Headache 2008;48:S52.
Weiner RL, Alo KM, Feller C, et al. Nerve stimulation in the treatment of occipital neuralgia (p abs). International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society Conference; 1998; Lucerne, Switzerland: Liste-88.